The Statistics Act 2006 specifically mandates KNBS to:
- Act as the principal agency of the government for collecting, analysing and disseminating statistical data in Kenya
- Act as custodian of official statistics.
- Conduct the Population and Housing Census every ten years, and such other censuses and surveys as the Board may determine;
- Maintain a comprehensive and reliable national socio-economic database
- Establish standards and promote the use of best practices and methods in the production and dissemination of statistical information across the NSS; and
- Plan, authorise, coordinate and supervise all official statistical programmes undertaken within the national statistical system.